Chapter 18, Verse 19

ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः । प्रोच्यते गुणसंख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि ॥१९॥


jñānaḿ karma ca kartā ca tridhaiva guṇa-bhedataḥ procyate guṇa-sańkhyāne yathāvac chṛṇu tāny api

Word Meanings

jñānam — knowledge; karma — work; ca — also; kartā — worker; ca — also; tridhā — of three kinds; eva — certainly; guṇa-bhedataḥ — in terms of different modes of material nature; procyate — are said; guṇa-saṅkhyāne — in terms of different modes; yathā-vat — as they are; śṛṇu — hear; tāni — all of them; api — also.


Knowledge, action, and the doer are declared to be of three kinds in the Sānkhya philosophy, distinguished according to the three modes of material nature. Listen, and I will explain their distinctions to you.


In the Fourteenth Chapter the three divisions of the modes of material nature were elaborately described. In that chapter it was said that the mode of goodness is illuminating, the mode of passion materialistic, and the mode of ignorance conducive to laziness and indolence. All the modes of material nature are binding; they are not sources of liberation. Even in the mode of goodness one is conditioned. In the Seventeenth Chapter, the different types of worship by different types of men in different modes of material nature were described. In this verse, the Lord says that He wishes to speak about the different types of knowledge, workers and work itself according to the three material modes.