BG 12.1

अर्जुन उवाचएवं सततयुक्ता ये भक्तास्त्वां पर्युपासते।येचाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तं तेषां के योगवित्तमाः।।12.1।।

arjuna uvācha evaṁ satata-yuktā ye bhaktās tvāṁ paryupāsate ye chāpy akṣharam avyaktaṁ teṣhāṁ ke yoga-vittamāḥ

arjunaḥ uvācha—Arjun said; evam—thus; satata—steadfastly; yuktāḥ—devoted; ye—those; bhaktāḥ—devotees; tvām—you; paryupāsate—worship; ye—those; cha—and; api—also; akṣharam—the imperishable; avyaktam—the formless Brahman; teṣhām—of them; ke—who; yoga-vit-tamāḥ—more perfect in Yog


Arjuna said, "Which of them are better versed in Yoga—those who steadfastly worship You, or those who worship the imperishable and the unmanifested?"


12.1 एवम् thus? सततयुक्ताः ever steadfast? ये who? भक्ताः devotees? त्वाम् Thee? पर्युपासते worship? ये who? च and? अपि also? अक्षरम् the imperishable? अव्यक्तम् the unmanifested? तेषाम् of them? के who? योगवित्तमाः better versed in Yoga.Commentary The twelfth discourse goes to prove that Bhakti Yoga or the Yoga of devotion is much easier than Jnana Yoga or the Yoga of knowledge. In Bhakti Yoga the

devotee establishes a near and dear relationship with the Lord. He cultivates slowly and one of the five Bhavas (attitudes) according to his temperament? taste and capacity. The five attitudes are the Santa Bhava (the attitutde of peaceful adoration) Dasya Bhava (the attitude of servant towards the master) Sakhya Bhava (the attitude of a friend) Vatsalya Bhava (the attitude of a parent to the child)

and Madhurya Bhava (the attitutde of the lover towards the beloved). The devotee adopts these attitudes towards the Lord. The last (Madhurya Bhava) is the culmination of devotion. It is merging or absorption in the Lord.The devotee adores the Lord. He constantly remembers Him (Smarana). He sings His Name (Kirtana). He speaks of His glories. He repeats His Name. He chants His Mantra (Japa). He prays

and prostrates himself. He hears His Lilas (divine plays). He does total? ungrudging and unconditional selfsurrender? obtains His grace? hols communion wih? and eventually gets absorbed in Him.The devotee begins by worshipping the idols or the symbols of God. Then he performs internal worship of the Form. Ultimately he is led to the supreme worship of the allpervading Brahman (Para Puja).Thus As declared

in the last verse of the previous chapter.Avyaktam The unmanifested? i.e.? incomprehensible to the senses? transcending all limiting adjuncts. The unmanifested Brahman is beyond all limitations. That which is visible to the senses is called Vyakta or manifest.The hearts of the devotees are wholly fixed on Thee. They worship Thee with all their heart and soul.There are others who worship the unmanifested

Brahman which is beyond time? space and causation? which is attributeless? which is eternal and indefinable? which is beyond the reach of speech and mind. These are the wise sages.Of these two? the devotees and the men of knowledge -- who are the better knowers of Yoga (Cf.XI.55)