BG 13.12

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम्।एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोन्यथा।।13.12।।

adhyātma-jñāna-nityatvaṁ tattva-jñānārtha-darśhanam etaj jñānam iti proktam ajñānaṁ yad ato ’nyathā

adhyātma—spiritual; jñāna—knowledge; nityatvam—constancy; tattva-jñāna—knowledge of spiritual principles; artha—for; darśhanam—philosophy; etat—all this; jñānam—knowledge; iti—thus; proktam—declared; ajñānam—ignorance; yat—what; ataḥ—to this; anyathā—contrary


Constancy in Self-knowledge, the perception of the end of true knowledge—this is declared to be knowledge, and what is opposed to it is ignorance.


13.12 अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वम् constancy in Selfknowledge? तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् perception of the end of true knowledge? एतत् this? ज्ञानम् knowledge? इति thus? प्रोक्तम् declared? अज्ञानम् ignorance? यत् which? अतः from it? अन्यथा opposed.Commentary The liberated sage has constant awareness of the Self. He knows that knowledge of the Self alone is permanent and all other learning relating to this

world is ignorance. He knows that the knowledge which leads to the realisation of the Self is the only truth.These attributes beginning with humility are declared to be knowledge? because they are conducive to knowledge they are the means to knowledge. They are secondary or auxiliary causes of knowledge. The fruit of this knowledge of the Self is deliverance from the round of births and deaths. The

spiritual aspirant should always keep the end of knowledge in view. Only then will he attempt to develop the various virtues which are conducive to the attainment of knowledge of the Self. What is opposed to knowledge? viz.? lust? anger? greed? pride? hypocrisy? attachment? cunningness? diplomacy? injuring others? is ignorance. These evil traits which are the products of ignorance bind a man to Samsara.

If you wish to attain the knowledge of the Self you will have to eradicate these evil traits which stand as stumbling blocks on the path of salvation. If you cultivate the opposite virtues? the evil traits will die by themselves just as the plants which are deprived of water in a garden die by themselves. It is difficult to eradicate the evil traits by fighting against them.