ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः।प्रोच्यते गुणसंख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि।।18.19।।
jñānaṁ karma cha kartā cha tridhaiva guṇa-bhedataḥ prochyate guṇa-saṅkhyāne yathāvach chhṛiṇu tāny api
jñānam—knowledge; karma—action; cha—and; kartā—doer; cha—also; tridhā—of three kinds; eva—certainly; guṇa-bhedataḥ—distinguished according to the three modes of material nature; prochyate—are declared; guṇa-saṅkhyāne—Sānkhya philosophy, which describes the modes of material nature; yathā-vat—as they are; śhṛiṇu—listen; tāni—them; api—also
Knowledge, action, and actor are declared in the science of the Gunas (Sankhya philosophy) to be of three kinds only, according to the distinction of the Gunas. Of these, hear duly.
18.19 ज्ञानम् knowledge? कर्म action? च and? कर्ता actor? च and? त्रिधा of three kinds? एव only? गुणभेदतः according to the distinction of Gunas? प्रोच्यते are declared? गुणसंख्याने in the science of Gunas (Sankhya philosophy)? यथावत् duly? श्रृणु hear? तानि them? अपि also.Commentary The three alities overpower the whole of creation with their special nature and bring it entirely under their control.
The nature of action? the actor and his knowledge are threefold according to the Gunas that is predominant. If all the three are Sattvic? then the action will not bind the man.Karta The doer of the actions.The science of the Gunas here referred to is Kapilas system of philosophy. Though the Sankhya system is opposed to Vedanta with reference to the Supreme Truth? viz.? the oneness or nonduality of
Brahman? yet it is an authority on the science of the Gunas.I shall describe knowledge? action and actor? as also their various distinctions caused by different Gunas? scientifically and rationally. Hear My teachings? O Arjuna? with rapt attention. You will be immensely benefited.