शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च।ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम्।।18.42।।
śhamo damas tapaḥ śhauchaṁ kṣhāntir ārjavam eva cha jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam
śhamaḥ—tranquility; damaḥ—restraint; tapaḥ—austerity; śhaucham—purity; kṣhāntiḥ—patience; ārjavam—integrity; eva—certainly; cha—and; jñānam—knowledge; vijñānam—wisdom; āstikyam—belief in a hereafter; brahma—of the priestly class; karma—work; svabhāva-jam—born of one’s intrinsic qualities
Serenity, self-restraint, austerity, purity, forgiveness, and uprightness, as well as knowledge, realization, and belief in God, are the duties of Brahmanas, born of their own nature.
18.42 शमः serenity? दमः selfrestraint? तपः austerity? शौचम् purity? क्षान्तिः forgiveness? आर्जवम् uprightness? एव even? च and? ज्ञानम् knowledge? विज्ञानम् realisation? आस्तिक्यम् belief in God? ब्रह्मकर्म (are) the duties of Brahmanas? स्वभावजम् born of nature.Commentary Sama is control of the mind. Dama is control of the senses. Serenity and selfrestraint have already been explained in XVII.2.
Austerity of the three kinds has also been explained in XVII.14 to 16.Astikyam Faith in the words of the Guru? in the teachings of the scriptures? in the existence of God? in the life beyond or hereafter and in ones own Self.The mind is absorbed in the Self. This gives peace. Selfrestraint is the helpmate of peace. In obeying the inunctions of the scriptures alone you will attain peace and spiritual
progress. You must not argue too much. You must have reverence for and faith in the teaching.As the sandalwood tree is fragrant with its own sweet scent? as a Champaka tree is adorned by its lovely flowers? so also a Brahmana is adorned by these nine virtues which are inseparable from him.Now? O Arjuna? listen to the duties of a Kshatriya.