BG 8.1

अर्जुन उवाच किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम। अधिभूतं च किं प्रोक्तमधिदैवं किमुच्यते।।8.1।।

arjuna uvācha kiṁ tad brahma kim adhyātmaṁ kiṁ karma puruṣhottama adhibhūtaṁ cha kiṁ proktam adhidaivaṁ kim uchyate

arjunaḥ uvācha—Arjun said; kim—what; tat—that; brahma—Brahman; kim—what; adhyātmam—the individual soul; kim—what; karma—the principle of karma; puruṣha-uttama—Shree Krishna, the Supreme Divine Personality; adhibhūtam—the material manifestation; cha—and; kim—what; proktam—is called; adhidaivam—the Lord of the celestial gods; kim—what; uchyate—is called;


Arjuna said, "What is Brahman? What is Adhyatma? What is action, O best among men? What is Adhibhuta declared to be? And, what is Adhidaiva said to be?"


8.1 किम् what? तत् that? ब्रह्म Brahman? किम् what? अध्यात्मम् Adhytama? किम् what? कर्म action? पुरुषोत्तम O best among men? अधिभूतम् Adhibhuta? च and? किम् what? प्रोक्तम् declared? अधिदैवम् Adhidaiva? किम् what? उच्यते is called.Commentary In the last two verses of the seventh chapter Lord Krishna had used certain philosophical and technical terms such as Adhyatma? Adhibhuta? Adhidaiva and Adhiyajna.

Arjuna does not understand the meaning of these terms. So he proceeds to ask the Lord the above estions for their elucidation. Lord Krishna gives the answers succinctly to the above estions in their order.Some treat this chapter as Abhyasa Yoga because in this chapter verses 7? 8? 10? 12? 13 and 14 deal with spiritual practices. Verse 7 treats of Karma and Bhakti Yoga combined (giving the hands to

the service of humanity or society and fixing the mind on the Lord). Verse 8 deals with Abhyasa Yoga. Verses 10? 12 and 13 treat of Hatha Yoga (how to raise the lifeforce t the Ajna Chakra and the Sahasrara and the Brahmarandhra). Verse 14 treats of the easy Yoga of constant Namasmarana or remembering the names of the Lord constantly. This alone will help the spiritual aspirant to approach the Lord

easily.The nature of Brahman? the individual Self (Adhyatma)? the nature of action? the nature of the objective universe or phenomena (Adhibhuta)? knowledge of the shining ones (Adhidaiva)? and the secret of sacrifice (Adhiyajna) are described in this discourse. The perfect sage will have perfect knowledge. He will have perfect knowledge of not only the manifested Brahman but also of the transcendental Brahman and the why of the universe? etc.